Darwinian theorized that man originated from animals and this was met by controversy. The bible faithful and other scientists found it hard to accept his theory. In order to settle the fire and disapprove his critics, Darwin wrote the book the Descent of Man, and in this book he intended to outline the human evaluation and also to prove the common descent of man. Thus to enhance understanding of this topic, and to prove to his critics that he was right in his theory, Darwin considered the theory of sexual selection through his book. He increased into the insight of the evaluation of morality and religion, to prove that all these things were not divine as people think.
As people tried to accept the Darwinian Theory, they found it hard to accept some facts. For instance some people agreed with the fact that man has evolved from the animal, but they hardly accepted the fact that human faculties could evolve. The difference between man and the apes that Darwin theorizes as the common ancestors for man is big. In fact the difference between the smartest ape and man is still large that people hardly find it possible to accept the Darwin’s view. However, Alfred Russell Wallace who together with Darwin discovered the theory of natural selection believed that there is a possibility than man evolved from the apes. However, he changed his position and subscribed his thoughts and support to the Spiritualism theory which is based in the book of Genesis. Wallace doubted the possibility of the human mind to evolve. According to him, the human mind is too complex that it can hardly gradual evolve from that of apes. However, to disapprove his critics, Darwin wrote the book of the Descent of Man to answer some of these questions. However, because he found it hard to contest this position on the gradual evolution of the complex mind, Darwin decided to consider a different approach. This is because he wanted to avoid more controversy but yet still answer his critics, thus he reasoned that the animals like apes exhibit some traits like sympathy, reasoning and beauty which is synonymous with man. ”music, beauty, sympathy, reasoning and other traits can be seen in other animals like apes and dogs” (Darwin, 196).
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In Darwin’s time the question of how many races were in existence and whether the races could be mixed raised debates that left many in everlasting arguments. As an evolutionary biologist, Darwin rejected the theory of polygenism which established that human beings were of the same species. In the contrary, Darwin noted that human beings originated from common ancestors, and that they were one specie and not different species created differently as postulated by the polygenism theory of creation. To enhance acceptance of his views, Darwin noted that the different races can be variants and subspecies and in no way they can be a different creation. Darwin later increased his stance and position after noting the primitive nature of the people he saw in South America. He further noted in Darwin (183) “human races are closely related, the gap between animals and humans is due to close relations of the forms being extinct”. In fact this is why Darwin noted that the savages were being taken over by the more civilized people.
Darwinian Theory had social implication and other social scientists found it easy to explain some societal nature based on this theory of natural selection. By establishing that only the most fit will succeed in the world of limited resources, Darwin was almost right. Many prominent people based on this theory have been ascribed to have risen to these great heights due to the fact that they are better fit and naturally sleeted to survive above others. Indeed even in today’s society, those who have risen to prominence have managed to overcome some facets of life which are being faced by the poor. For instance, the fact that the rich have managed to emerge the fittest, means that they will meet most of their needs like food, treatment yet on the other hands the nature has selected the poor to remain in their category and poverty. By remain in poverty, this group is naturally selected to suffer from the disease and impoverished conditions which are expected to be common within this kind of group. In fact as noted by some social scientists, the government has established that nature must be halted to ensure equality in life. This is why the governments have come up with charity and social programmes so that those who have emerged as unfit in the natural selection war can be given some forms of support. Thus by enhancing social protection programmes and safety nets, the governments and non-governmental organizations are just attempting to make the desired change in the war of natural selection and to ensure equality.
Evolution biologists therefore believed that their theory is based in nature and not theological or religious perspective. As noted by (Aspell) “Judge John III ruled against Intelligent Design because it is a religious theory not warranting to be taught in school curriculum”. This was a remarkable step of ensuring that the creationist does not win the support of the public on the issue of the descent of man. This because by teaching this Intelligent Design which is leaned more towards religious creation, most students were going to be inclined towards this creation. Thus this documentary received rejection from the sections of theologists who believed in the creation theory. According to the religious and theologists (Aspell) “this theory was not based on evolution and should be shown in churches and schools as well” because it supported the ideology of religious theorists. Additionally, during this trial the advocates of Intelligent Design lied because they said this theory was not established based on creationist’s theory yet the initial drafts revealed that its basis was the creation theory (Aspell).
Thus, as discussed above it is apparent that the evolution theory and the descents of man are worth being appreciated as proved by Darwin theory. This is because his concept of natural selection and development of humans is very evident. Additionally, the fact that the theory of evolutional biology acknowledges and relates to the characteristics of apes and other animals, it can be worth considering evolution based on this basis. Moreover, the fact that Darwin noted the difference between civilized and the primitive man add credibility to his findings, he confirms the noted changes that results from civilization. Additionally, it is only evolutionary biology that can explain the consistent changes that takes place in the structures of humans. Evolutionary biology also explains the origin of different races, a fact that creation theory has failed to prove.
Darwin, Charles. “The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex”. London: John Murray Publishers. 1871, pp. 101-211.
Aspell, Paul. Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial. NOVA: Vulcan Productions Big Table Film Company. 13.11.2007.