Example Of Course Work On Environmental and Global Health Issues

Published: 2021-06-30 10:35:08
essay essay

Category: United States, Community, Medicine, World, Health, Disease, Viruses, Asthma

Type of paper: Essay

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A.1 Outbreak Description

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is one of the twenty-first century viral respiratory diseases occurring in humans. The causative organism is the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the first infection was detected in Hong Kong it has escalated into a public health concern requiring immediate intervention (Smith, 2006).
Reports have been that during November 2002 and July 2003 there has been an outbreak of the disease. It was so acute that it reached pandemic proportions starting in Hong Kong. The spread continued to 37 other countries with fatality estimation by world Health Organization of 10.9%. However, the virus is fully contained as public health authorities are working on controlling the spread to other parts of the world (Smith, 2006)

Importantly, the virus has not been irradiated because there is the predisposition of it being harbored in natural host reservoirs such as infected animals like pigs, goats, cows, and sheep and to a lesser extent poultry. Seven countries mostly affected are China with the highest incident rate; Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada, Singapore, Vietnam and United States of America (Smith, 2006)

A.2 Epidemiological indicators description

The epidemiological indicators as it relates to cases infected and death rates are 916 fatalities, internationally, in 2003 with 8,422 infected persons. Epidemiologists have contended that this figure represents ‘less than 1% of people aged 24 or younger, 6% for those 25 to 44, 15% for those 45 to 64, and more than 50% for those over 65’ (World Health Organization, 2008). Comparatively, statistics reveal that the fatality related to influenza is much lower; 0.6% with the potential of rising to 33% depending on the severity of infecting strains.

Recent figures as per the seven mostly infected countries reveal that in China there were 5,328 cases with 349 deaths; Hong Kong 1,755 cases 299 deaths; Canada 251 cases, 44 deaths; Taiwan 346 cases, 37 deaths, Singapore 238 cases 33 deaths; Vietnam 63 infected, 5 deaths and United States of America 71 infected 4 deaths. Of the other thirty countries which were affected infection numbers ranged from 1-14 with two deaths.

A.3 Epidemiological data analysis

The foregoing epidemiological data indicates that people most susceptible to the infection are those over 65 years of age. Also, there is a predominance of the virus among people of Chinese decent and it is moving eastwardly to the North in the direction of Canada and United States of America. It would appear that by the time it reaches these geographic locations either the strain becomes weaker or these countries present a physiological barrier to the multiplication process because less people are infected and die.

A.4 Route of transmission discussion

This disease is transmitted by the Coronaviruses organism and specialists have discovered the virus in wild animals. Even though it is a respiratory condition it is believed that the virus is ingested and after affect the respiratory system (Fourcher, 2003)

A.5 Graphic representation of outbreak

A.6 How the Outbreak affects the community

There are physical, emotional and socio-economic impacts of the outbreak. Physically, there is a reduction in the population size due to increased mortality and communities affected have been quarantined for the period of caused by the virus has. Emotionally, deaths as well as illnesses caused members of the community to be demoralized, especially, when travelling from one area to the next and have to be tested for the virus. Since the virus can be harbored in animal hosts vendors who slaughter meat can lose business through consumers’ fear of becoming infected. Human resources is considered valuable from an economic stand point. Therefore loss of human life affects production.

B. Appropriate protocol utilization for reporting possible outbreak of SARS.

The reporting protocol involves reporting suspicious case. After signs and symptoms are observed and the client is suspected to be infected, tests are conducted to verify the suspicion. Documentation then follows. Cases ought to be documents by a qualified medical person and must be executed with urgency. The notifier must specify the geographical location of the incident; estimated population and number of suspected. This must be reported initially to the public health officer in the region. The route through which this transmission continues entails a telephone call to the administrative health Officer. This report is then transferred within twenty for hours to the head in command being an indecent officer who documents the issue (Leiu, 2005).


There are a number of strategies which can be undertaken by a community health nurse. Asthma being a respiratory disease it increases difficulty in breathing. Symptomatically, coughing, wheezing, rhinitis and chest tightness are the usual manifestations. It is also known an airway obstructive disease leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Usually, some measures taken to modify care in a situation where there is an increased risk of air quality are instituting a nursing process approach in bringing relief to the community. First, an assessment of the real dangers is undertaken and reports made to the chain of command. It is important as a community health care interventionist to collaborate with agencies and other professionals in public health to plan strategies in addressing whatever diagnosis is made of the community and residents affected. Care could be further modified through implementation. This would necessitate finding out if asthmatic patients have adequate supply of medication. They should avoid exposure to more impure air by remaining in air a conditioned environment with air filters. Community members could be incorporated in education ventures to limit the spread of impure air in the atmosphere (Barnes, 2008)


Barnes, P. (2008). Asthma. New York: McGraw-Hil
Fouchier RA, Kuiken T, Schutten M. (2003). Aetiology: Koch's postulates fulfilled for SARS virus. Nature 423 (6937), 240
Lau SK, Woo PC, Li KS. (2005). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like Virus in Chinese horseshoe bats". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (39): 14040–5.
Smith, D. (2006). Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks, Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management. Social Science and
Medicine, 63 (12), 3113–3123.

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